Bits and pieces Volume I

Table of Contents for Bits and Pieces     

By clicking the paragraph required, you will be taken direct to that subject.  When finished, simply click 'Back to Top' ready to click on the next subject of interest
  1. Private Health - BUPA -  ex Navy
  2. My home page - Satellites etc.
  3. Princess of Wales's Funeral
  4. Procession for the Laying-in-State of HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother
  5. Extracts taken from the Seamanship Manual of the Edwardian Navy dated 1905 [note - affects all branches and not just seamen]
  6. Cryptography - Enigma style!
  7. 1934 John Player cigarette card collection of warships
  8. 1937 Coronation Spithead Review
  9. Victorian Navy   {Time expired - SEE 16 below}
  10. The Union Jack
  11. Why the Queen is unique - perhaps not what you thought !
  12. Bad reporting on our TV and in national newspapers [Time expired.  Lack of knowledge about how the royalty fit into our national ceremonies]
  13. Lord Mountbatten's personal drawings 
  14. The Queen's Golden Jubilee medal
  15. An excellent Naval web site!
  16. Victorian and Edwardian sailors in my family - FASCINATING story of British mariners 150 years ago!


Many ex-RN'ers are members of BUPA, protected by their civilian employer's scheme for GROUP membership. GROUP membership reduces the cost for each individual subscription; the more the merrier.  But, do you know that when you retire for the second time and lose that precious GROUP membership perk,  all is not lost.  As a private person paying your own BUPA subscription, you can continue to enjoy GROUP discounts by joining a new GROUP, the ARMED FORCES RETIREES group.  To join, send proof to BUPA that you were  in the Royal Navy and you will be credited with an attractive discount.  Moreover, if you pay annually there is a further discount.  Your certificate of registration will show you as being in the AFR Group.  The more ex RN'ers  joining, the bigger the GROUP discount.  I found it by accident, and it is something that should be made known.  4th April 2002.


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On my home page, I show a link for those interested in Astronomy or Satellites.  I wonder how many countless signals we, as communicators,   handled in the years we served, which required the addition of jargon, like, for example the JULIAN DATE.  The same Pope Julian is used in Astronomy.  However, since ordinary time is adequate for our everyday purposes, it is not accurate enough when dealing with time up in the heavenly bodies, so a Julian Date Time [JDT] is used for all calculations.  For this purpose time begins daily at 1200 [12am] and is expressed in SECONDS and PARTS of a SECOND only.  Therefore 3.10pm [1510] becomes 11400.

Dates BEGAN on the 1st of January 4713 BC [at 12 noon]  when the JULIAN clock was set at all the zero's [NO TIME]. This is referred to as 1.1.-4712.  Therefore, by the year 2001 [for example] on the 1st of January at 12 noon, 6713 years had past, each of 365¼ days approximately, rendering a clock count of 2451911 and the time [12 noon ] 00000.

The JDT for 01.01.2001 was therefore 2451911.00000.   Note that there are 7 digits and 5 digits in the string.

The Space Shuttle launches and indeed, all satellite launches are always expressed as JDT.  4th April 2002.

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Note:     Some pages are numbered but left blank.

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This is the text of an email sent to a friend of mine who was the Chief Radio Supervisor of the frigate HMNZS Canterbury, which was made in the UK, Commissioned by New Zealand, and worked-up at Portland when I was a sea-rider on the staff of FOST.

Dear John
Many thanks for your email.
Yesterday I caught the 0620 train to Waterloo arriving there at 0734.  After the short walk across York Road and Westminster Bridge, I arrived at the junction of Parliament Street and Bridge Street at 0750.  I was amazed to see that this most advantageous viewing position 
was sparsely populated , secured my place, and conditioned my mind to a rather long 4 hour wait. Just in front of me was a lonely female figure who had made the trip all the way from Toronto "just to be near The Queen Mother" She had been there for nearly 30 hours with her Canadian Flag proudly draped over the crowd barrier. It was a long wait until 1145 when the head of the Procession, the RAF Band and marching units reached our position culminating with the Gun Carriage passing at 1158.  The atmosphere was very very special and I was awed. I talked to many splendid people, who, to a person, were like-minded soul-mates, and being British, overtly proud that all we were seeing and sensing belonged to us.  Later on, towards the 0930 mark, the crowds gathered in numbers and I was surprised at the number of Old Commonwealth people there, mostly on holiday, but very proud to witness this event. I spoke to a couple of Kiwi's and I mentioned the good old days of Canterbury's emigrating to NZ! The weather was perfect and quite hot at times.  From our viewing position we not only saw close hand the Procession and specifically the Coffin and The Crown, but what was going on at the Palace of Westminster with the comings and goings of Royal ladies, who, like HM The Queen, had arrived by car from Buckingham Palace via Birdcage Walk.  Fell-in immediately outside the gates to Westminster Palace, was a Guard-of-Honour mounted by the Grenadiers - they were resplendent.  Your observation of our Armed Forces being the Vanguard of all things British is correct. However John, notwithstanding the discussion of women in submarines/the front line, amongst their ranks were far too many women service personnel, and WOMEN CANNOT MARCH. Moreover, unlike their male counterparts whose haircut/style under their hats are the same, the women had pony-tails, bobs, short, medium, long you name it, and by and large, they appeared to be very much shorter than the men.  One young female lieutenant in charge of a section of Navy street liners screamed and shouted with such a low volume high pitch voice, that someone in the crowd was heard to accuse her of being a fish-wife.  The other point is that the Procession, much much smaller than at Mountbatten's had too many RESERVE units, and without being too unkind, their marching was embarrassing to the trained-eye!  After HM The Queen had left [via Whitehall to much clapping!] with the many other Royal car's, things became frustrating because the Police did not have an overall policy  for controlling a crowd about to disperse.  Just about everybody present wanted to see the Laying-in-State in Westminster Hall, and, bearing in mind that we were just a few metres from the door to the Hall, we were milling around awaiting the formation of an orderly queue. The problem was that many in the Police ranks were either Special's or had been co-opted from other forces to assist the Met and they did not know London; nor had they been briefed correctly.  In the end, we were forced back South across Westminster Bridge, along the Thames, back North across Lambeth Bridge, through Victoria Tower Garden's, onto Millbank, into Abingdon Street and finally in the South door of the Hall and back out through the North door into Palace Yard.  I joined the queue at 1240 and at 1610, entered the Hall.  The Laying-in-State was beautiful and so well stage-managed that it could have been a film set.  We were not ushered along, and within reason, we could stand in silence and pay our respects.  I was touched to see so many men wearing black or dark -coloured ties,  and that their grief was dignified, often starting or ending with a smart and co-ordinated bow.  By 1615, the shadows were lengthening and shafts of light, coming through the high windows, were targeting the Catafalque.  Above the Catafalque were chandeliers which were illuminated and all was quiet and so peaceful. There was so much love in that room that when people looked at each other, their eyes smiled spontaneously that knowing smile that tells of a common empathy.   It is a scene which I will never forget.  I am a proud 'Brit all the time and I don't need such an event as the passing of our beloved Queen Mother to remind me of it, but, it was nice to see that those who do need a reminder, those who ordinarily could not care less,  responding in such an admirable way. Rule Britannia. Yours aye. Jeff.

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Extracts taken from the Seamanship Manual of the Edwardian Navy dated 1905. NOTE. Communicators were part of the Seaman Branch 



Note: The twentyfour hour clock was not used!

Artificers and Artisans Commence work in harbour at 7.30 A.M. The lower artisan ratings clean their messes before starting work at their trades at 7.30 A.M.
Cooks of the Messes The members of a mess [not a petty or chief petty officers' mess] take it in turn to act as cook of their mess for a day.  Two are told off daily, one in each watch.  They keep  the mess and utensils clean, obtain provisions, and prepare meals for cooking..  Petty officers messes have permanent attendants detailed for them, either boys, ordinary seamen, or stokers.
Electric Light Party Consists of from four to twelve L.T.O.'s and S.T.'s according to size of ship, as well as electricians and torpedo gunner's mates, are required for maintenance of circuits,  dynamos and motors, etc.
Galley Fire Lit at midnight by the quartermaster or bosun's mate of middle watch, and kept in till 8 P.M., when fires are drawn and galley cleaned.
Issues of Clothing, Tobacco and Soap "Slops" are generally issued once a month, as well as tobacco and soap, but at a different time. Clothing lists, showing each man's requirements, are made out by divisional officers from chits handed in by the men when piped to do so.
Issue of Spirits Each man above the age of twenty is allowed a daily ration of half gill of "three water grog" {i.e., one part rum to three parts water]. Neat rum is issued to warrant and chief petty officers. The drawing-off and issue of spirits must always be attended by an officer.
Leave There are three classes for leave, viz., special, general and limited leave, in which all men except chief petty officers are included.  Chief petty officers are not classified for leave.  Special leavemen are allowed the indulgence of leave to the fullest possible extent. General leavemen are given leave periodically, according to circumstances, about once or twice a week. Limited leavemen are allowed to land once in three months.  Liberty men have their names entered in the short-leave book, and each man sees his name ticked off on going and on returning from leave. Petty officers are not fallen in for inspection before going and after returning from leave; they report themselves to the officer of the watch.  The watch for leave is the forenoon watch on deck.  In home ports it is usual to give leave to a watch and a part of the other watch.
Lights Electric and oil bow and steaming lights are prepared and placed by second captains of fore and main-tops and second captain's of forecastle and quarterdeck respectively with next numbers on the Watch bill. Anchor, top, stern, "not under control", and position lights are provided and worked by signalmen.  Speed lights are provided by signalmen and worked by ordinary or able seamen as a trick.
Make and mend clothes Generally on Thursday afternoons, except for artificers, artisans, and special parties, who make and mend clothes on Saturday afternoons.
Mess Deck Regulations In every ship regulations for the good order and discipline of the mess are printed, framed and hung up for the information of the ship's company
Muster by Open List For general muster, payments and issues of clothing, the ship's company is divided into sections approximately one hundred strong according to their numbers on the ledger, petty officers first, the men, each class being kept separate.  They fall in four deep, each man stepping forward as his name is called, the leading section of fours being kept complete by the men in the rear closing up
Reelers Special men told off in each watch under a petty officer to work the sounding machine
Schoolmaster A capable petty officer, generally a writer, is detailed as schoolmaster, for which duty he is paid.  He instructs boys and holds evening school for those who wish to avail themselves of it.  The Admiralty make an allowance for purchase of stationery.
Ship's Library The schoolmaster is the librarian, and books are issued and taken in generally twice a week on Sundays and Thursdays during the dinner hour
Signalmen Keep four watches sea and harbour
Speed signals Flag and cone, by day are worked by the trick which work the speed lights at night
Sweepers Are men detailed for the care and maintenance of special places and compartments which require individual attention and cannot be conveniently included in the general "clean ship" scheme
Tailor Specially selected seamen, stokers or marines borne for the purpose of altering ready-made clothing on issue to fit the individual and to make up "outsizes" not in stock.
Stokers work/meal times [harbour] At sea the stokers are in three watches, in harbour they work as daymen.  After their work is over in harbour they clean themselves and shift into night-clothing, after which they fall in and are inspected by the engineer officer of the day. As they begin work in the engine-rooms and stokeholds at the same time as the seamen begin work on deck, they generally have their breakfast taken below to them by the cooks of their messes, and men engaged in particularly dirty work also have their dinners taken to them, otherwise they clean at the end of the forenoon's work, returning below after dinner.
Time Is indicated on board ship by striking the ship's bell every half-hour. The rule being:- One stroke of the bell at half-past four, half-past eight, and half-past twelve, one more stroke being added for each subsequent half-hour until eight strokes of the bell, or "eight bells" are reached at four, eight and twelve.  In the dog watches the same rule is followed as far as four bells, which denotes six o'clock, and then begin again, but eight o'clock is always eight bells
Very's Signal-lights Are worked by signalmen
Ship's Company Meals The recognised meal hours are five in number, and the routine of meals is, as far as possible, as follows:-

5 A.M. to 5.35 A.M. - Lash up and stow hammocks.  Issue cocoa.
8 A.M. to 8.45 A.M. - Breakfast.  "Clean".
Noon to 1.15 P.M. - Dinner
4.15 P.M. to 4.45 P.M. - Tea.  Shift clothing
7.30 P.M. to 8 P.M. - Supper.
At sea, ration of cocoa is issued to the morning watch after mustering, and to the remainder of the ship's company after hammocks have been stowed.  Reliefs take their meals as follows:-
Breakfast at 7.30 A.M. Relieve at 7.55 A.M.
Dinner at noon.  Relieve at 12.30 P.M.
Tea at 3.30 P.M. Relieve at 4 P.M.
Supper at 7.30 P.M. Relive at 8 P.M.
Scale of Provisions.
Standard Ration {Value 6d.}

Article Allowance Per Man
Biscuit ½lb daily or 1lb flour when bread is not available.
Soft Bread 1lb daily or ¾lb bread and ¼ flour.
Jam or Marmalade 1oz daily
Spirit eighth pint daily
Sugar 4oz daily
Chocolate ½oz daily or 1oz coffee
Milk, condensed ¾oz daily
Tea ½oz daily or ¼oz tea and 1oz coffee
Salt, mustard, pepper, vinegar As required
Fresh meat [beef, mutton or pork] ½lb daily when procurable
Fresh vegetables 1lb daily when procurable
Preserved meat [breakfast or supper ration] ¼lb 1 day per week in harbour and 2 days per week at sea
Coffee A substitute for tea or chocolate
Flour A substitute for bread or biscuits
In addition to the Standard Ration, an allowance of 4d per man per diem is paid monthly to the messes to cover food purchased from ship's stores of from the canteen.


Dinner Ration when fresh provisions cannot be procured.
First and Third Days:-

Salt pork ½lb
Split peas ¼lb
Potatoes ½lb
Celery seed ½ oz

To every 8lbs of Split Peas put into the coppers

Second Day:-

Preserved beef 6ozs
Potatoes ½lb
Flour 8ozs
Suet ¾oz
Raisins 2ozs

Fourth Day;-

Preserved mutton 6 ozs

Rice 4ozs

Potatoes ½lb


1lb., comp. vegetables, or 2 ozs haricot beans, or 2 ozs marrowfat peas, when potatoes are not available.


Click to enlargeClick to enlargeClick to enlargeClick to enlargeClick to enlargeClick to enlarge Click to enlargeClick to enlargeClick to enlarge   THE NAVAL SIGNALLING MANUAL AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY





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Cyptography: Not One-time-pad: Not Sea Scout: Not Type X {CCM}: Not KL7:
NOR Real Time Systems BUT!  ENIGMA.


But which one? The German railways had one; the German Army had theirs; so did the Air Force and the Navy, too.

Admiral Donitz decreed that the submarine fleet was so special that it would have its own enigma, and it would rank above all other enigma machines.

I have an army/air force machine here in my office  which was  manufactured in 1943! IT IS A SOFT WARE PROGRAMME. 

Now!  If you thought our off-line crypto was labourious, try the following
Have a go at decyphering  the following message, and transmit the decoded version  to me by email.  BEFORE you start, YOU WILL find it useful to PRINT the next little section.  For those not in the know, use your mouse to highlight the section from the beginning of the CODE GROUPS - CJITV etc until the end of the text bit commencing with CLICK HERE TO INSTALL........Once highlighted, go to FILE and choose PRINT.  When your printer dialogue box appears choose SELECTION and PRINT. If it will not give you "selection" , either copy the information longhand or much better still do the following. Make sure that you can see from the groups to the bottom of the necessary instructional text without having to alter the cursor[s].  Then, go to the top of your keyboard and there you will find a key marked "PRINT SCREEN". Click on this once, and that will send your screen picture to your CLIPBOARD.  If necessary, minimise this window and open your word processing programme {Word etc} and click on PASTE. Then you will have a page copy.

Machine settings are:-
WALZENENLAGE - Relector B Left III Mid V Right I
SETTINGS 02 11 05 Group 5

Version - Enigma 3S/A17119S/jla/43

CLICK HERE =  enigma/enigma3s.exe  = TO INSTALL THE MACHINE  .After clicking  on this URL choose the OPEN option.  Ignore the message which says that it cant open a file, click OK and it  will open up the machine for interactive use.  Then   apply the   settings just like you used to do on a KL7 machine for example.  Remember to have your sound source {speakers} turned on.  To begin, choose SETTINGS and then INNER SETTINGS {on the top menu bar}  then apply the WALZENENLAGE and OK, and the  SETTINGS  to RINGSTELLUNG and OK, then SETTING to STECKERVERBINDUNGEN and OK.  Then alter the  3 sets of two digit figures on the top of the machine {by clicking  the panel to which they are attached or by choosing VIEW and then OPEN COVER} to the SETTINGS shown above, namely 02 11 05 by clicking on the white vertical bars.  Then go to OPTIONS and check that Group 5 is ticked.  Commence typing in my five-letter code and the resultant plain language {P/L} will appear in the Message Out box.  To code something up for me,  apply YOUR OWN SETTINGS FIRST, go to OPTIONS and clear both the IN and OUT boxes then select ENCIPHER TEXT before you type in your message.  The resultant five letter groups will appear in the Message In box.  To send the settings that I need to add-in to my software machine,  you will have to type them into the email yourself.  Also, because I cannot give you the total package over the internet {you have use of the machine only} you cannot use the Command Save which you will find  under File. Annoying I know, but the coded groups must also be typed in by hand.  You can use the Print command, also in the File column.  To use this command click on the Message In box when you have finished coding, until it turns blue in colour! Enigma  is easy and fun to use.
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  Click to enlarge             Click to enlarge   To help you with the text, here is a retype.    H.M.S."HOOD," British Battle Cruiser.  Begun under the Emergency War Programme in 1916, H.M.S. Hood was built by John Brown & Co., Clydebank, and cost about £6.000.000.  She has a speed of 31 knots, a displacement of 42,100 tons and carries a complement of 1,341.  Her armament consists of eight 15-inch guns, twelve 5.5-inch guns, four 4-inch anti-aircraft guns and subsidiary weapons, besides six 21-inch torpedo tubes.  Aircraft are to be added in 1939.  She is fitted with outside bulges as protection against under-water attack, and has specially thickened side armour and conning tower.  The Hood, although over 18 years old, is still reckoned as a first-class fighting unit [No.4].

H.M.S. "REPULSE," British Battle Cruiser, "Renown" Class.  Provided for by the 1914-15 Navy estimates, the two ships of this class were both built on the Clyde, at a cost of about £3,000,000 each.  Both have been extensively reconstructed.  The armament consists of six 15-inch and twelve 4-inch guns with numbers of subsidiary weapons, including 21-inch torpedo tubes.  Four aircraft with catapult are in the equipment as reconstructed.  The two ships each have a displacement of 32.000 tons, a speed of 28-29 knots and carry a complement of about 1,200.  Owing to the additional  armour protection which has been provided, the speed  has been reduced from the original 31 knots. [No 5].

H.M.S. "EXETER," British Cruiser "York Class".  This class, numbering two ships, is a modification of the three-funnelled  Dorsetshire type which  preceded it, being 1,585 tons lighter. Originally it was intended that there should be three funnels, but the necessity of saving space decided that the two forward uptakes should be trunked into a single casing.  Built at Devonport Dockyard, the Exeter has a displacement of 8,390 tons.  Her complement is 600 and her speed 32 knots with   80,000 h.p.  Her armament is exceptionally heavy, consisting of six 8-inch guns, with adequate subsidiary weapons, including 21-inch torpedo tubes.  She  carrier two aircraft with catapults. [No 6].

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  H.M.S. "NELSON,"  British Battleship.  This ship and the Rodney were designed to Treaty limits and were  completed in 1927.  They have certain peculiar features which place them in a class by themselves.   The straight high freeboard and exceptionally long fore deck ensure good seaworthiness and allow the main armament and most vulnerable parts to be well protected.  The builders were Armstrongs [Nelson] and Cammell  Laird [Rodney].  The displacements are respectively 33,950 and 33,500 tons; each has a speed of 23 knots, and a complement of over 1,300.  The main armament  consists of nine 16-inch guns in three turrets, with many small guns.  The cost exceeded £7,500,000 each [No 1].

H.M.S. "WARSPITE," British Battleship.  First built under the 1912 estimates as a unit of the Queen Elizabeth class of five ships, the Warspite was completed at Devonport Dockyard in March 1915, and was in action at Jutland.  Four of these ships have been, or are in process of being modernised at a cost of approximately equal to the original contract price of £2,500,000 each. New features embodied in the reconstruction include additional armour protection against aerial attack, high trajectory gun-fire, and an augmented anti-aircraft armament.  With  displacements ranging from 30,600 to 31,000 tons, they are over 600 feet long, with a speed of 25 knots and a complement of nearly 1,200. [No 2].

H.M.S. "REVENGE," British Battleship, "Royal Sovereign" class.  Five ships of this class were projected under the 1913-1914 estimates, and were all completed and commissioned during the Great War, at an average cost of £2,500,000.  The Revenge was built by Vickers.  The armament consists of eight 15-inch guns, with an adequate number of subsidiary weapons, and 21-inch torpedo tubes.  She has a displacement of 29,150 tons and a speed of 22 knots.  Some of her sister ships include aircraft  in their equipment.  Bulges of  improved types as a protection from under-water attack were fitted after the War. Their lower freeboard renders these ships rather wet in heavy weather. [No 3].

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A few days after their Coronation on Wednesday the 12th of May 1937,  Their Majesties  King George  VI and  Queen Elizabeth  went to Portsmouth to  review the fleet.

The  Queen must have been awe-inspired by the power and majesty of the Navy of those days, and she must have reflected upon the times when her husband was an active officer away from family circles and loved ones.  She, no doubt, must have thought about the  families of the thousands of sailors  involved.

It was probably their very first public engagement and how fitting it was that it should be a visit to the Royal Navy,  to the men and women who epitomised all that was good about being British, and as history showed, the men and women who would hold the sword against the German, the Italian and the Japanese navies  a few short months later.

We are regularly told that the Queen was a prop to the King who "was not comfortable in public".  I like to think that on this occasion when the King was in familiar surroundings, that both were very comfortable, very relaxed and very happy.

Not many of us would have been in Portsmouth over that period at a time of her first public engagement as Queen, but most of us will have witnessed her last public engagement!  From first hand experience, the latter was a magnificent affair, and judging from the Review Programme, so was the first.


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I hope that you enjoyed  the FLEET REVIEW.  Don't forget to VIEW the 1953 and the 1977 Fleet Reviews.

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9.  {D E L E T E D}

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The origin of the Union Jack

[Taken from the Seamanship Manual of the Edwardian Royal Navy]

" A "JACK" is a flag to be flown on the "Jack" staff, i.e., a staff on the bowsprit  or fore part of  a ship, which custom now prevails; and it is believed that the term "Jack" is derived from the abbreviated name of the then reigning Sovereign King James I., under whose direction the flag was constructed, and who signed his name "Jacques."

The original National Flag of England was the Banner of St. George, to which the Banner of St. Andrew  was united by Royal Proclamation dated 12th April 1606.  By an order in Council dated 17th April , 1707, pursuant to  the Act uniting England and Scotland, the Jack of 1707 was approved.

In 1660 the Duke of York, afterwards James II., issued instructions that the Union Flag would in future be worn only by the King's Ships.

On the Union with Ireland, and Order in Council, dated 5th November, 1800, approved of the present Union Jack, which was authorised by Royal Proclamation  1st January 1801."

[End of subject taken from the Edwardian Seamanship Manual]

This leads to why the Union Jack has a right and wrong way of being worn - broad stripe to the staff - and if reversed, a sign of DISTRESS or more often, a sign of ignorance!

If, in the above definition, one were to lay down the saltire [St. Andrew's Cross] on a horizontal surface [top down] and upon it place a much modified Cross of St. Patrick, since when the broad avenues of the cross are reduced and redrawn that the hitherto broad red cross is now a thin red cross, which when orientated clockwise, has a broad white stripe on the right in the top two quadrants, and a broad white stripe on the left in the lower two quadrant as shown below, the cross on the left being full, and the cross on the right bring redrawn [modified] for purposes of integration into the Union Flag/Union Jack.

stparticks.jpg (14595 bytes)     stparticks2.jpg (15023 bytes)

Then,  upon these two crosses, one full and one reduced, place a full cross of  St George. One then  has the Union Flag/Union Jack, which, when tilted to the left and counting clockwise, has a broad stripe in the top left hand quadrant; a broad stripe at the bottom of the second quadrant; a broad stripe at the bottom of the third quadrant, and a broad stripe at the top of the fourth quadrant. Therefore, the Union Jack is made up of the full Banner of Scotland and England, and a reduced Banner of Ireland, and Wales, because she is a principality and not a country, is not represented at all.

Now, having 'cleared the decks' on that point, the Union Jack is not unique to Britain nor to our Monarchy.  There are other countries who boast a Union Jack with as much pomp and ceremony plus history, as we ourselves claim for our Union Jack.  The best example is that of the United States Navy - to say the least - a very proud bunch of guys and gals. Just look at the following site to understand why. 

Jack of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

I hope that you have learned something of interest.

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11. IN PASSING!!! Do you know why HM The Queen is unique in this land of ours?  Do you remember that not that long ago, she paid no taxes, but now she contributes pro rata!  She is a very rich lady but certainly not the richest of UK residents let alone the world at large. Because she is  a constitutional monarch she has no real power when measured  against other women in the world, for example Prime Ministers, albeit that their powers are transient.  HM Reigns not Rules. So, what then differentiates HM from all others notwithstanding?; you will be amazed!


Click to enlarge  As you can read, HM can do no wrong as a private person and cannot be tried for any crime.  I am reliably  informed that the 1947 act is still in being and that Her Majesty is ABOVE THE LAW, the only person in the land - hence her UNIQUENESS!  You are reading an article called  "The Monarch in Britain" prepared for British Information Services by the Central Office of Information, London, which is a Governmental Organisation/Department.

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12.  Did you watch television or read a newspaper during the time of the Queen Mother's funeral - period 5th-10th April 2002?  Where you impressed or were you left wondering as to how do they get away with making so many 'cock up's'?  Have a look at FAMILY THINGS - NEWS SLOT!!  [TIME EXPIRED!]
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The two drawing's below are by Lord Mountbatten and he has signed them MofB.  They are drawn on G.R. graph paper.  Clearly, he had designed a signal lamp for the Navy possibly whilst  holding a signals officer appointment.  In the drawing "Section through signalling projector", under the entry "¼ scale", Lord Mountbatten says: "Regret unable to remember details but radial wedge shaped slats were rotated 90 degrees about their central stalk by 2 outer rings which had studs sliding in the slits at revolution of each slat - Only a general perspective view from an angle required to demonstrate idea which worked well at sea. MofB."  The drawings were obviously made many years later!  Click to enlarge           Click to enlarge 

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Just in case you haven't seen this little piece of news on any other site or media outlet, I thought some of you might be interested in this medal!  As you will know, a Golden Jubilee Medal is being issued by the Palace/Government to selected serving members of the Armed Forces [and to many others  too] in recognition of Her Majesty's 50 year Reign.   This medal will be worn in the normal military position along with other medals currently awarded/issued.  In addition, a medal has been minted which is on sale to all ex-Service personnel who served in the Armed Forces at any time or for any period since February 1952.  This medal can be worn [with pride I would say] with medals already owned, also on the left hand side BUT BELOW  SERVICE medals, on a separate line.  In the three thumbnails below, I show you both sides of the medal with  the ribbon, and where you apply to purchase it.  For a little extra cost, you can have your Service details engraved around the rim of the medal in the traditional manner.  However, remember that Jubilee medals issued in the past [Silver in 1977 for example] are not engraved at issue.      


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15.  Take a look at this excellent site

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16.  Victorian and Edwardian sailors  plus one youngster!




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Copyright © 1999  [Godfrey Dykes]. All rights reserved.
Revised: March 05, 2021 .