1st May 1707, the very day when the title GREAT BRITAIN was coined under the
reign of HM Queen Anne [last of the Stuart monarchs], which brought two
separate states [England and Scotland] sharing one monarch which had
existed for over one hundred years since 1603, into one state under the
hitherto shared monarch, the existing navy of Scotland [said to be small and
ineffectual] representative of a poor and undeveloped country, and the
existing navy of England known to be great and powerful "servicing"
England's many and established overseas possessions whereas Scotland had
none, were to be as one navy, governed by the first edict of the 1707
Union Treaty which said.........
"That the Two
Kingdoms of Scotland and England shall upon the first day of May next
ensuing the date hereof and forever after be United into One Kingdom by the
Name of Great Britain And that the Ensigns Armorial of the said United
Kingdom be such as Her Majesty shall appoint and the Crosses of St Andrew
and St George be conjoined in such manner as Her Majesty shall think fit and
used in all Flags Banners Standards and Ensigns both at Sea and Land ".
Majesty [a Stuart monarch, ergo of Scottish ancestory] thought fit,
made common sense and pragmatic sense, but the Scots rebelled complaining
that the massive red cross on the white ensign was overtly English
[put there simply to differentiate a British ship from a French ship both at
one time having a plain white ensign] and, of the omnipotence of the emblem
in the canton [upper quadrant of the ensign on the hoist] where the St
George's Cross trumped the St Andrew's Cross beneath. The Scots were
to rush to commit their further grievance to paper, when the so-called* St
Patrick's Cross was added in 1801.
The result of
that conjoining was to become known as the UNION
PENDANT but more simply, whether the Red,
White or Blue, the Great Britain [British] Ensign. This is what the white
ensign looked like from 1707 until 1801.
As a by and by,
the second edict of the 1707 Union Treaty was to enshrine into 1707 Treaty
Law, the 1701 English made law, of ACT OF SETTLEMENT, which denied access to
the Throne for all except protestants, Scotland having a very large Catholic
population and strong Continental European Catholic friends!
confusingly but of course apt in 1707, was the Expression "United Kingdom of
Great Britain" used to mean the uniting of Scotland and England [and Wales
as a Principality]. The United Kingdom of pre-1948, came about on the
1st January 1801 when the Irish joined the 1707 Union. For those not wholly
familiar with our customs/systems, the post-1801 United Kingdom is a generic
term which meant Great Britain + Ireland. However, in this context, Ireland
remained a full member of United Kingdom until the creation of a new country
called The Republic of Ireland [Eire] which occurred in 1948. Part of the
island of Ireland, 81.25% was ceded to the Republic, the remaining
18.75% stayed British and was renamed Northern Ireland. Since those times
, the United Kingdom means Northern Ireland + Great Britain.
reading the petition below, and after the read, continue with English for
THE SCOTTISH PETITION TO KING GEORGE V IN 1935
Just before I was born in 1937, it was made known to the Scots that
quite a few of their conceived ideas were not only wrong, but manifestly so.
The Scots petitioned H.M. King George V in 1935 [in the first instance] about why
“England” [English] was used when clearly the subject matter [whatever] was
The answer came from a fellow Scot, Mr Elliot, whose very brief
biography can be found here
“With regard to the first head [sic] - meaning heading - in the petition, the Foreign Office
points out that in official correspondence the use of the words complained about
is avoided as far as possible, but that it is not practicable to prohibit their
use, as the meanings of official documents has to be made plain to the
ordinary reader, and the term British is sometime ambiguous.”
The ADMIRALTY states that the use of the term ‘British Fleet’
is incorrect in reference to the Royal Navy, and explains how the
Cross of St George came to be put on the flags flown by admirals as a means of
distinguishing them from the French flag in the days when it was the plain white
[Royalist flag of the French Monarchy] and
declines to consider the alteration of colours which have been in use by the
Royal Navy for more than two centuries. Why
then did the Admiralty coin the expression BPF [in early 1945] = British
Pacific Fleet ? [for example]
In this famous picture by Wyllie Senior of HMS Victory being tugged
from its mid-stream Portsmouth harbour mooring to the dockyards No 1 tidal
basin to be made ready [removal of ballast etc] for docking in No 2 dry
dock. The event was the 16th December 1921 with the subsequent docking in
1922. Note the flags flying aloft and the white ensign down aft on the
ensign staff topped with the Royal Crown. Those flags are the RED ENSIGN on
the fore and just below it, signal flag Mike**, and ST GEORGE'S CROSS on the main.
We know that Victory wore a white ensign at Trafalgar with an 1801
redesigned canton showing the United Kingdom flag of today. On this occasion
the St George's Cross is being flown for a full admiral,
namely Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe, C-in-C Portsmouth in
* St Patrick was not martyred and had no Cross. St Patrick's red
saltire was only devised in 1783, 13 centuries after St Patrick's stated
time in Ireland, almost ready-made for inclusion into the 1801 final
** Flag M signifies to other mariners that
my ship is stopped and making no headway through the water.
same white flag as mentioned above, still flies today but only as a third of the French tricolour
of Blue White and Red. It would appear that Frenchmen are eager to tell you
that the three colours represent the motto of France, which is [B] = Freedom
[W] = Equality and [R] = Brotherhood, or, in each case, words having the same
meaning e.g., Brotherhood/Fraternity. However, the official French Government
website tells us why the
colours were used, WHITE being for the Royalty
they dispatched with the Guillotine! See below
The Army Council points out that for heraldic reasons the white St Andrew’s Cross cannot be displayed on the Regimental Colours
of Scottish regiments with buff or yellow facings, and that its use on Scottish
regiments –with blue facings – would unduly differentiate Royal Scottish
regiments from all other Royal regiments. The matter was discussed in 1913 and
these considerations were accepted as satisfactory and reasonable by the then
Lord Lyon King of Arms. The Army
Council’s reply to paragraph five that the request on the Colour-pikes on Scottish
regiments, is NOT the ‘English’ Royal Crest but is the for the ‘United Kingdom’
as prescribed by the Order-in-Council on November 5 1800, may strike the
petitioners as being not particularly impressive as they complained that it was
the Royal Crest for England which had been adopted for the United Kingdom and
used for the Colour-pikes of Scottish regiments. Now, however, that the Royal
Crests for Scotland has been recognised on the coinage, Scotsmen will doubtless
continue to hope that it may be given a place on the Colour-pikes of Scottish
The Home Office reply about various heraldic complaints made by the two
societies, points out that Garter was originally Principal King of Arms of the
English, apparently to distinguish him from Montjoie, Principal King of Arms
of the French: but the words of the ‘English’ were afterwards dropped. The title Principal King of Arms has been
used since 1755.
Although Garter has no heraldic jurisdiction in Scotland or Ireland,
the Law Officers of the Crown in the three Kingdoms in 1913 held that he has an
Imperial jurisdiction in respect of persons not domiciled in the United
Kingdom, although this jurisdiction is not to be deemed to oust the authority
of the Lord Lyon and Ulster King of Arms respectively to deal with claims to
arms registered in Scotland and Ireland.
In the matter of the Scottish Mint the discontinuance of which the
societies claim is due not to departmental practice in disregarding The Treaty of Union,
but to the Acts of Parliament of 1817 and 1870.
To summaries the foregoing, all reference to the British Fleet [Fleets]
should be used only when cognisant of the facts raised and stated in this
answer. Throughout, and certainly adherent to World War One in its entirety, the correct entry
and assumption should be to refer to the Royal Navy which encompasses all three
Kingdoms and the principality of Wales,
in equal and conjoined status. As regards World War Two, Ireland should be
replaced by Northern Ireland as a Kingdom.
A COPY OF THE OFFICIAL FRENCH GOVERNMENT WEBSITE
there is no need to click on this URL - IT IS ALREADY opened for you below.
Included just in case you want to visit and to use its interactive bits and
Copied just in case they take it down or alter it!
Symbols of the French
The main symbols of the Republic share
the same revolutionary origins. The
national motto "Liberty, Equality,
Fraternity", the national day on 14
July, the Marseillaise, the national
anthem, the three-coloured flag, the
Declaration of Human and Civic Rights of
1789 and Marianne were born symbolically
at the time of the French Revolution,
representing a break from the Old Regime
and its symbols ("fleur de lys", white
and gold flag etc.). As for the
cockerel, its association with French
symbolism comes from the Latin Gallus,
which means both cockerel and Gaul.
Marianne is the embodiment of the French
Republic. Marianne represents the
permanent values that found her
citizens’ attachment to the Republic:
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity".
Commemorating the storming of the
Bastille on 14th July 1789, Bastille Day
takes place on the same date each year.
The main event is a grand military
parade along the Champs-Élysées,
attended by the President of the
Republic and other political leaders. It
is accompanied by fireworks and dances
in towns throughout the whole of France.
The Marseillaise is the patriotic hymn
of the French Revolution, officially
adopted by France as its national anthem
The "tricolour" (three-colour) flag is
an emblem of the Fifth Republic. It had
its origins in the union, at the time of
the French Revolution, of the colours of
the King (white) and the City of Paris
(blue and red). Today, the "tricolour"
flies over all public buildings. It is
flown at most official ceremonies, both
civil and military.
The Latin word Gallus means both
"rooster" and "inhabitant of Gaul".
Certain ancient coins bore a rooster,
but the animal was not yet used as the
emblem of the tribes of Gaul. Gradually
the figure of the rooster became the
most widely shared representation of the
A fundamental value and essential
principle of the Republic, secularism is
a French invention.